Federal and State Laws

Federal Title IX Requirements

K-12 Schools and College Campuses

A school should provide training to all employees likely to witness or receive reports of sexual violence, including teachers, professors, school law enforcement unit employees, school administrators, school counselors, general counsels, athletic coaches, health personnel, and resident advisors. Training for employees should include practical information about how to prevent and identify sexual violence.

There is no minimum number of hours required for Title IX and sexual violence training at every school, but this training should be provided on a regular basis.

Every school is required to have a designated TitleIX coordinator. To find the TitleIX coordinator at your school use this tool provided by the AAUW.

State Requirements

California Education Code(s)


Encourages schools to have in-service training programs to reduce crime, violence, bullying, and sexual harassment.

51934 and 51950 - Amended by AB 643 & AB 1227

Expands the California Healthy Youth Act to include sexual abuse prevention and human trafficking prevention taught at least once in middle school and once in high school.

51900.6 (b) Also known as Erin's Law

School may provide age-appropriate instruction, pursuant to the content standards adopted by the state board under subdivision (a), for kindergarten and grades 1 to 12, inclusive, as applicable, in sexual abuse and sexual assault awareness and prevention.

The Statistics:

  • 1 in 3 girls are sexually abused before the age of 18. (The Advocacy Center)

  • 1 in 5 boys are sexually abused before the age of 18. (The Advocacy Center)

  • 1 in 10 students will be a victim of sexual misconduct by school personnel per the US Dept. of Education.

  • “More than 90% of individuals with a developmental delay or disability will be sexually assaulted at least once in their lifetime.” (Valenti-Heim, D.m Schwartz L.)

  • 90% of child sexual abuse victims know the perpetrator in some way. (U.S. Dept. of Justice)

    • 30% by family members, 60% by people the family trusts

  • 1 in 5 children are solicited sexually while on the Internet before the age of 18. (National Children’s Alliance: Nationwide Child Abuse Statistics)

  • Kids who have been abused are at greater risk for becoming victims of human trafficking / CSEC – Commercially Sexually Exploited Children.

  • A typical pedophile will commit 117 sexual crimes in a lifetime. (National Sex Offenders Registry)

Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse:

When we choose to not train our staff and ourselves, when we don’t report suspicious behavior, when we don’t speak up when someone is crossing a boundary or when we don’t listen to our kids we are killing their future potential.  Victims of child sexual abuse suffer these consequences:

  • Perform lower on cognitive ability, academic achievement and memory assessment

  • 3 to 4 X higher percentage of substance abuse

  • Significant increase in truancy and drop-out rates

  • 2.2 X higher percentage of teen pregnancy

  • 3 to 5 X delinquency and crime

  • PTSD including 2 x higher percentage of anxiety, depression, and suicide

  • 2 x higher percentage of obesity and eating disorders

  • 30% more likely to have diabetes, cancer, heart problems, stroke or hypertension

  • Life expectancy is 10 – 20 years less than people who have not been abused

Economic Impact

As a tax-payer you should know the average lifetime cost per victim of child abuse is $210,012* costing the U.S. billions annually. These expenses are largely paid for by the public sector - the taxpayer.

The costs include:

  • Healthcare costs

  • Criminal justice costs

  • Child welfare costs

  • Special education costs

  • Productivity losses

*Fang, X., Brown, D., Florence, C., Mercy, J. (2012) The economic burden of child maltreatment in the United States and implications for prevent.  Child Abuse & Neglect, 36:2,156-165

The Solution:

95% of sexual abuse is preventable through education. (Child Molestation Research and Prevention Institute). It is not cost prohibitive or time consuming so there is no excuse for not training all staff and volunteers of any organization that works with youths.

Mandated Reporter training is not comprehensive. It focuses on reporting and barely mentions prevention. Youth-serving organizations should be trained on prevention annually. Prevention training protects the students, staff, and the organization.

In the book, The Socially Skilled Child Molester, Psychologist Carla van Dam, says that predators deliberately choose places of employment and to volunteer in organizations that do not train their staff. Predators deliberately target people who are too uncomfortable to discuss child sexual abuse prevention, too shy to speak up, too worried about being polite or hurting feelings to speak up when boundaries have been crossed. There are way too many options for predators to choose from, if you are trained they will quickly move onto an easier target.